In Antiquity and as late as the middle ages, the name sapphire was understood to mean what is totally described as Lapis Lazuli today. Around 1800 it was Recognized that sapphire and Ruby are gem varieties of Corundum.
Today Corundum of all colors except red are called sapphire. Red varieties are Called Rubies. The various colors of sapphires are qualified as by description. Colorless Sapphire are called leuko-sapphire